This Paper s the result of extensive modeling and computer exhausting flow simulations based on 100 meter long blades the same length as existing GE blades with a maximum power of 14 Megawatts.

It proves that the 4 blade drag array can produce 1 Gigawatt and a 30 blade drag array can produce 3 GIgawatts. It is corroborated by the force and pressure differences and also the RPMs achieved which are 10 times that of the 14 Megawatt GE Halidad (7 RPM), which converts to 100x the power.

The paper also reports that the potential energy harnessed by wind is 20 million times that of solar per square meter of real estate because of the potential use of all the sky- such turbines exist and there are plans to build farms in the sky.

Blades of maximum drag

V1-V2=90

- Blowing on a ball to move it is not a novel use of drag.
- Here's the relevant part of Betz's treatise from 1926 Wind-Energie und ihre Ausnutzung durch Windmühlen - where Betz explains the limit 16/27 (59%) and the google English translation of the relevant pages. Surprisingly, there''s no published English version available or that I could find.
- Betz's Limit is based on a theoretical actuator disk with the assumption of having infinite ("infinitely thin") of zero drag (with "no losses") at the Disk,. I've highlighted those parts of the article.
- Simply put, Velocity or Power IN (V1) minus velocity or Power OUT V2 ,, equals velocity or Power extracted by the Disk (the Turbine.)
- However, If we eliminate the assumptions of zero drag, and instead have maximum drag in the Actuator Disk, then for example if V1 =100 and V2=10 , then the Power extracted at the disk is 90% far exceeding the limit of 59%.
- If you eliminate the assumptions, then you eliminate the Limit .
- I've spoken to Professors who have published papers, and swear on Betz's laws yet they have never actually read Betz and there are many misconceptions about what drag is. Drag is commonly misunderstood to mean friction or resistance, and that's because friction is resistance in a lift aerofoil blade. Most common is the misunderstanding that Drag is a loss of energy, whereas we know from Newton that drag is a conversion of energy.

BETZ' TREATISE NO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Here is Betz's treatise on the Limit. Wind-Energie und ihre Ausnutzung durch Windmühlen" ("Wind Energy and its Use by Windmills"), IThere's no published English version because all the NAZI book were taken off publication after the war.Most scholars have relied on secondary sources and have relied mostly on the faith of others. As you can see from secondary sources such as Wikipedia- the Assumptions of his Law, is a theoretical windmill with infinite blades and ZERO DRAG."AssumptionsThe rotor does not possess a hub and is ideal, with an infinite number of blades, which have no drag."__https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz%27s_law__ His analysis indeed analyzed lift rather than drag to reach the limit of 59%. This is cooborrated by some, for example __https://www.symscape.com/blog/virtual-wind-turbine-breaks-betz-law__ ("Betz Law is correct in defining, in physics, how a propeller driven windmill operates- nothing more and nothing less.... it correctly defines how a propeller driven wind mill operates.").

drag and lift forces

Eric Hau used the same assumptions as Betz as you can see in chapter 4.1,and 4.2 from page 83 and ending at 85, Eric Hau arrives at his theoretical maximum of drag devices of 20% by multiplying the two Betz concepts- the first that drag itself (a sail) has a 1/3 limit (similar to Betz’s wall on wheels V=V1/3) and then multiplied by the limit of power extraction (Betz’s Limit) of 59%, which is based on the hypothetical infinite blades of zero mass and zero drag, which is a limit on Lift.

However, if we apply the converse hypothesis, that the sail or wall has infinite size, zero mass and zero lift (because no wind is getting around the sail), then 100% of the Wind is fully converted to the velocity of the wall and to Work , W=V=V1, in Betz wall on wheels.

It is the same as a spitball with no friction or mass, the force of the breath would be converted 100% to the ball and the velocity of the ball would equal the velocity of the wind breath again W=V1=V2 without the 1/3 or 59% limit.

Where does the 1/3 drag limit come from?

WIthout friction and mass theres 100% conversion of wind from draf

Eric Hau multiplied two Betz theories to obtain a max20% from drag

Betz's limit is for Lift

V1-V2=90

80 RPM =1 GIGAWATT

Simple experiments such as the video attached shows that drag can capture more than 59% of the energy of the wind. While the powered fan is at 2366 RPM, the receiving fan is 1648. showing that drag can surpass Betz limit of 59%. (1648/2366) = 69%.

WHen you blow a spit ball through a straw, you are using 100% of the wind energy from your breathe. (minus some small factors such as friction and weight of the spit ball), certainly more than 59%.

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